High-throughput technologies for medical data acquisition continue to advance at an ever increasing pace. We now have the opportunity to integrate multidimensional information to study human disease using both clinical and basic research data. This also creates new avenues in data breaches, necessitating careful studies of biomedical data privacy from a social, technical, and ethical standpoint. In this panel, we explore the privacy issues related medical and research data use to advance human health. This includes the state-of-the-field on recent developments in approaches to compromising patients’ and research participants’ privacy, approaches to prevent intrusion, and policies to enable data sharing. We will discuss the technical approaches to exposing privacy weaknesses in shared data that may not be covered under policies, such as membership inference attacks. We will also discuss whether anonymity of the data is possible and what legal perspectives and policies can overcome these issues while promoting data sharing.